Non sedating tricyclics
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of insomnia. Insomnia can be a short-term or chronic condition, but it always involves problems with falling asleep or staying asleep.Short-term (transient) insomnia can be caused by illness, stress, travel, or environmental factors.Long-term (chronic) insomnia may be due to underlying psychological or physical conditions. Anyone can get insomnia, but it is generally more common in women than in men. Diagnosing Insomnia A doctor will make a diagnosis of insomnia based on information about your sleep patterns.Your doctor may ask: Drug Approval In 2011 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Intermezzo, a lower-dose form of zolpidem, for treating middle-of-the-night awakening.Patients who wake up abruptly in the middle of the night and then have trouble falling back asleep can dissolve the tablet under the tongue.
(Infants may sleep as many as 16 hours a day.)The daily cycle of life, which includes sleeping and waking, is called a (meaning "about a day") rhythm, commonly referred to as the biologic clock.
Hundreds of bodily functions follow biologic clocks, but sleeping and waking comprise the most prominent circadian rhythm. It usually takes the following daily patterns: With each descending stage, awakening becomes more difficult.
It is not known what governs Non REM sleep in the brain. In REM sleep, brain activity is comparable to that in waking, but the muscles are virtually immobilized, which prevents people from acting out their dreams.
A balance between certain hormones, particularly growth and stress hormones, may be important for deep sleep. In fact, except for vital organs like lungs and heart, the only muscles not immobilized during REM are the eye muscles.
REM sleep may be critical for learning and for day-to-day mood regulation.