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Their use is referred to as doping and banned by most major sporting bodies.For many years, AAS have been by far the most detected doping substances in IOC-accredited laboratories.In countries where AAS are controlled substances, there is often a black market in which smuggled, clandestinely manufactured or even counterfeit drugs are sold to users.The most commonly used anabolic steroids are testosterone (and its various esters, but most commonly testosterone propionate, testosterone enanthate, and testosterone cypionate), Others also available and used commonly but to a lesser extent include methyltestosterone, oxandrolone, mesterolone, and oxymetholone, as well as drostanolone, methenolone (methylandrostenolone), and fluoxymesterone.Studies in the United States have shown that anabolic steroid users tend to be mostly middle-class heterosexual men with a median age of about 25 who are noncompetitive bodybuilders and non-athletes and use the drugs for cosmetic purposes."Among 12- to 17-year-old boys, use of steroids and similar drugs jumped 25 percent from 1999 to 2000, with 20 percent saying they use them for looks rather than sports, a study by insurer Blue Cross Blue Shield found."(Eisenhauer) Another study found that non-medical use of AAS among college students was at or less than 1%.According to a recent survey, 78.4% of steroid users were noncompetitive bodybuilders and non-athletes, while about 13% reported unsafe injection practices such as reusing needles, sharing needles, and sharing multidose vials, Another 2007 study found that 74% of non-medical anabolic steroid users had post-secondary degrees and more had completed college and fewer had failed to complete high school than is expected from the general populace.are drugs that are structurally related to the cyclic steroid rings system and have similar effects to testosterone in the body.
Anabolic steroids also have androgenic and virilizing properties, including the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics such as the growth of the vocal cords and body hair (secondary sexual characteristics).The word anabolic, referring to anabolism, comes from the Greek ἀναβολή anabole, "that which is thrown up, mound." Anabolic steroids were first made in the 1930s, and are now used therapeutically in medicine to stimulate muscle growth and appetite, induce male puberty and treat chronic wasting conditions, such as cancer and AIDS.The American College of Sports Medicine acknowledges that AAS, in the presence of adequate diet, can contribute to increases in body weight, often as lean mass increases and that the gains in muscular strength achieved through high-intensity exercise and proper diet can be additionally increased by the use of AAS in some individuals.These effects include harmful changes in cholesterol levels (increased low-density lipoprotein and decreased high-density lipoprotein), acne, high blood pressure, liver damage (mainly with oral steroids), and dangerous changes in the structure of the left ventricle of the heart.Conditions pertaining to hormonal imbalances such as gynecomastia and testicular size reduction may also be caused by anabolic steroids.